Philippine and US electoral systems on the line Both the US and the Philippines could be faced with serious questions about our respective electoral systems Published 6: In the Philippines, either of two outsiders, a neophyte senator Grace Poe and a mayor from Mindanao Rody Duterte has a good chance of winning the presidency. Two veteran national politicians, former interior secretary Mar Roxas and Vice President Jejomar Binay, could still win as they have the machineries for victory. How will the elections shape the discourse on the validity of the Electoral College and the future of the US political system?
Political factions[ edit ] Political factions have existed in democratic societies since ancient times. Plato writes in his Republic on the formation of political cliques in Classical Athensand the tendency of Athenian citizens to vote according to factional loyalty rather than for the public good.
In the Roman RepublicPolybius coined the term ochlocracy literally, rule of the mob to describe the tendency of politicians to mobilise popular factionalist sentiment against their political rivals.
Factional politics remained a part of Roman political life through the Imperial period and beyond, and the poet Juvenal coined the phrase " bread and circuses " to describe the political class pandering to the citizenry through diversionary entertainments rather than through arguments about policy.
The patricians who sponsored the Blues and the Greens competed with each other to hold ever grander games and public entertainments during electoral campaigns, in order to appeal to the citizenry of Constantinople.
The first modern political factions, however, can be said to have originated in early modern Britain. The first political factions, cohering around a basic, if fluid, set of principles, emerged from the Exclusion Crisis and Glorious Revolution in late 17th century England.
As the century wore on, the factions slowly began to adopt more coherent political tendencies as the interests of their power bases began to diverge. The Whig party's initial base of support from the great aristocratic families widened to include the emerging industrial interests and wealthy merchants.
As well as championing constitutional monarchy with strict limits on the monarch's power, the Whigs adamantly opposed a Catholic king as a threat to liberty,  and believed in extending toleration to nonconformist Protestants, or dissenters. A major influence on the Whigs were the liberal political ideas of John Locke and the concepts of universal rights employed by Locke and Algernon Sidney.
They acted as a united, though unavailing, opposition to Whig corruption and scandals. At times they cooperated with the "Opposition Whigs", Whigs who were in opposition to the Whig government; however, the ideological gap between the Tories and the Opposition Whigs prevented them from coalescing as a single party.
Emergence[ edit ] When they lost power, the old Whig leadership dissolved into a decade of factional chaos with distinct " Grenvillite ", " Bedfordite ", " Rockinghamite ", and " Chathamite " factions successively in power, and all referring to themselves as "Whigs".
Out of this chaos, the first distinctive parties emerged. The first such party was the Rockingham Whigs  under the leadership of Charles Watson-Wentworth and the intellectual guidance of the political philosopher Edmund Burke.
Burke laid out a philosophy that described the basic framework of the political party as "a body of men united for promoting by their joint endeavours the national interest, upon some particular principle in which they are all agreed".
As opposed to the instability of the earlier factions, which were often tied to a particular leader and could disintegrate if removed from power, the party was centred around a set of core principles and remained out of power as a united opposition to government.
George III is the blockhead in the centre.
A coalition including the Rockingham Whigs, led by the Earl of Shelburnetook power inonly to collapse after Rockingham's death. The new government, led by the radical politician Charles James Fox in coalition with Lord Northwas soon brought down and replaced by William Pitt the Younger in It was now that a genuine two-party system began to emerge, with Pitt leading the new Tories against a reconstituted "Whig" party led by Fox.
As Wilson and Reill note, "Adam Smith's theory melded nicely with the liberal political stance of the Whig Party and its middle-class constituents.
In the late s disputes over political reform broke up this grouping.Should the electoral college be abolished essay to write in study abroad application essay i need help in my science homework johns hopkins thesis search.
B **the minimum time allocation specified in the fact that the transfer of schools means that the. However, it is still notable that the electoral volatility of the Thai party system is lesser than that of the Philippine party system (Average volatility of Philippine party system is , see Table 1 for more details).
This means that the interparty rivalry in the Thai party system is more stable compared to that of the Philippines.
The Electoral System in the UK: Pros and Cons Essay. The electoral systems existing in the UK today are currently under scrutiny with a call for reform for the First Past The Post (FPTP) with the recent AV referendum, in which people voted NO against a reform to the current system.
Aug 15, · We follow the electoral circus as it traverses the globe: Bernie still challenges Hillary in America, braggadocio dominates the Philippine elections and politicians in India stoke a fear of.
Our election process is not fair and needs to be overhauled. The electoral college was an invention of the late 18th century, and it was created because it was not believed that the average farmer knew enough about politics to have a say in them.
Electoral College System Essay. Analyze criticism of the "Electoral College" system and the alleged advantages and disadvantages of various reform proposals. The Electoral College is a system in which the individual voter does not .