The extracted products from the local populations are for self-use and for trade to fulfill the requirements of the herbal industry and other end users. At the current level of understanding, the best viable method of their conservation and development is to conserve these species in their natural habitats.
Breed, Janice Moore, in Animal BehaviorPopulation Genetics and Reserve Design A fundamental tenet of biology is that genetic diversity is the basis for adaptation—and as such, is the basis for survival of a population through evolutionary time. Environmental changes may favor new genetic combinations, certain genetic combinations may be better dispersers, and genetic diversity helps a population to avoid inbreeding effects.
When population size decreases, the statistical chances of rare alleles surviving in the population also diminish. The reduction of a population to near extinction and then recovery of that population is called a genetic bottleneck. The analogy is simple; the population at its smallest point resembles the narrow neck of a bottle, in that not all of the previous genetic variation passes through.
Key Term A genetic bottleneck is a low point in the number of animals in a population that results in decreased genetic diversity.
Genetic bottlenecks have been documented in a variety of species. Perhaps the Exsitu and insitu conservation of medicinal most famous examples are elephant seals and cheetahs. Elephant seals live on the Pacific coast of North America. They were hunted to very low numbers, about 50 toand have since recovered and recolonized coastal areas.
The cheetah in Africa and Asia is highly endangered at this time due to a combination of hunting pressure and competition with lions and hyenas; the genetic diversity of its wild populations is quite low. The largest known population is in Iran and numbers about animals; approximately 15, animals remain in the wild in Africa.
There are at least three potential behavioral effects of genetic bottlenecks: Presently, these effects are mostly hypothetical because they are difficult to measure in wild populations, particularly if those populations are small. Most captive populations of extinct-in-the-wild animals are undergoing a population bottleneck, but managers of these populations can plan pairings and use artificial insemination to conserve genetic resources.
This type of management is usually not feasible in a wild population. How large does a wild population need to be to provide sustainability? This is a difficult question. Conservationists use a population viability analysis PVA that takes into account the age structure, rate of population growth, mating structure, and spatial distribution of the animals.
Populations that fall below a critical number may, effectively, be extinct even if a few animals remain.
African elephants provide a good example of viability analysis. With an average of 3. Over time, this elephant population would fluctuate between about 1, animals and over 10, along with changes in ecological conditions, but it would be unlikely to go extinct.
Finding space for populations this size of small animals, such as insects, is nowhere near as problematical as finding space for viable populations of large carnivores.
Given the lack of spaces large enough for conservation of many species, conservation biologists talk about maintaining metapopulations, which are networks of interlinked subpopulations. Good reserve design can preserve species by allowing dispersal of animals among subpopulations.
This allows both retention of the reservoir of underlying genetic variation and recolonization if local populations go extinct, a likely event if they are small. The behavioral biologist can provide knowledge of how dispersal affects the movement of genes among subpopulations of a species and how its mating system might maintain or reduce genetic variation.
For instance, given the mating system of the scimitar-horned oryx discussed laterif the core reserve contains only one herd with one breeding male, interventions or dispersal interactions with other subpopulations will be necessary to retain genetic variation.
Some tropical bird species have extremely limited dispersal capabilities, amplifying the isolating effects of living in forest fragments. For conservation efforts to be successful, much more needs to be discovered about dispersal behavior and how animals living in metapopulations move among fragments in fragmented habitats.
If dispersal among subpopulations in metapopulations is cut off by distance, highways, or other factors, human-engineered translocations of animals among sites may be necessary. But how successful are translocations?
Translocation, or moving an animal from one natural setting to another, is similar in concept to reintroduction, but usually involves moving wild adult animals to habitats that are already occupied by the species. Examples of commonly translocated animals include beavers, prairie dogs, and bears.
Ex situ conservation is the conservation and maintenance of samples of living organisms outside their natural habitat, in the form of whole plants, seed, pollen, vegetative propagules, tissue or cell cultures. Ex situ conservation has several purposes: Rescue threatened germplasm. Produce material for conservation biology research.
The Kerala State Council for Science Technology and Education, Thiruvananthapuram bestowed on the Kerala Centre for Heritage Studies a research project on the Collection and Ex-situ Conservation of the Medicinal Plants Described in Van Rheede’s Hortus Malabaricus.
1 Ex-situ and In-situ Conservation of Medicinal plants with particular reference to Jammu and Kashmir State Javed Iqbal Punjoo (IFS) (Conservator of Forests, South circle, J&K Forest Department).
Exsitu and Insitu Conservation of Medicinal Plants Essay EXSITU AND INSITU CONSERVATION OF MEDICINAL PLANTS INTRODUCTION India ranks sixth under world's twelve mega bio-diversity zones. Out of these, two ofthem exist in our country.