Background[ edit ] Italy was unified by Rome in the third century BC. For years, it was a kind of territorial extension of the capital of the Roman Republic and Empireenjoying, for a long time, a privileged status and so it was not converted into a province. However, the emperor was an absentee German -speaking foreigner who had little concern for the governance of Italy as a state; as a result, Italy gradually developed into a system of city-states.
Italian Unification Summary The movement to unite Italy into one cultural and political entity was known as the Risorgimento literally, "resurgence". Giuseppe Mazzini and his leading pupil, Giuseppe Garibaldi, failed in their attempt to create an Italy united by democracy.
Garibaldi, supported by his legion of Red Shirts-- mostly young Italian democrats who used the revolutions as a opportunity for democratic uprising--failed in the face of the resurgence of conservative power in Europe. However, it was the aristocratic politician named Camillo di Cavour who finally, using the tools of realpolitik, united Italy under the crown of Sardinia.
|From the SparkNotes Blog||History of the The Unification of Italy Article shared by: History of the The Unification of Italy!|
|Keep Exploring Britannica||Its origins can be traced to the intellectual ferment of the 18th-century enlightenment and to the influence of the french revolution. Ignoring the liberal and national aspirations of many Italians, the Congress of Vienna in gave Austria a dominant position over an Italy divided into seven states.|
|History of Italy - Wikipedia||A number of Italian states were briefly consolidated, first as republics and then as satellite states of the French empire, and, even more importantly, the Italian middle class grew in numbers and was allowed to participate in government.|
|History of the The Unification of Italy||Nineteenth century movement for Italian unification inspired by the realities of the new economic and political forces at work afterthe liberal and nationalist ideologies spawned by the French Revolution ofand the ideas of eighteenth century Italian reformers and illuministi.|
|Italian Unification (1848-1870)||The Unification of Italy Flowchart Covered in multimedia lecture|
Inas prime minister of Sardinia, he involved the kingdom on the British and French side of the Crimean War, using the peace conference to give international publicity to the cause of Italian unification.
After a planned provocation of Vienna, Austria declared war against Sardinia in and was easily defeated by the French army. The peace, signed in November in Zurich, Switzerland, joined Lombardy, a formerly Austrian province, with Sardinia. In return, France received Savoy and Nice from Italy--a small price to pay for paving the way to unification.
In the spring ofGaribaldi came out of his self-imposed exile to lead a latter day Red Shirt army, known as the Thousand, in southern Italy. By the end of the year, Garibaldi had liberated Sicily and Naples, which together made up the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies.
Cavour, however, worried that Garibaldi, a democrat, was replacing Sardinia, a constitutional monarchy, as the unifier of Italy. After securing important victories in these regions, Cavour organized plebiscites, or popular votes, to annex Naples to Sardinia.
Garibaldi, outmaneuvered by the experienced realist Cavour, yielded his territories to Cavour in the name of Italian unification.
Reapolitik continued to work for the new Italian nation. The entire boot of Italy was united under one crown. Commentary Why did Cavour succeed and Garibaldi fail? Was it really only a matter of speed? If Garibaldi had started his crusade earlier and had time to conquer the Papal State before Cavour sent his troops to do so, would Cavour have been forced to give up his territory in the name of a united Italy?
But is speed really the only issue? That, too, is doubtful. It seems that of the two, Cavour alone understood the relationship between national and international events, and was thus able to manipulate foreign policy for his own ends.
Garibaldi, a democrat, a warrior, and an anti-Catholic, was without question on the road to conflict with the monarchies of Europe.The Risorgimento, meaning the Resurgence in Italian, was the political and social movement to create a united Italy in the 19th century.
In , the proponents of the movement declared victory and Turin was crowned the capital of the newly formed Kingdom of Italy.
The appearance in quick succession of two new general histories of Italy in the period of Unification by English historians at last makes it possible to bring Italy back into the arena of debates and issues which now concern modern European historians more generally. Nov 20, · Read "The Risorgimento and the Unification of Italy" by Derek Beales with Rakuten Kobo.
This book introduces the reader to the relationship between the Italian national movement, achieved by the Risorgimento.
They stimulated the deep and wide movement of thought and feeling which became so important in Italian history that they were given the title of II Risorgimento, the revival or resurrection. The Risorgimento movement was at bottom a moral one. Risorgimento, (Italian: “Rising Again”), 19th-century movement for Italian unification that culminated in the establishment of the Kingdom of Italy in Following the Congress of Vienna in , the Risorgimento movement emerged to unite Italy and liberate it from foreign control.
After the unsuccessful attempt of , The history of Italy in the Early Modern period was characterized by foreign domination and economic decline.