Wilkinson [Thames and Hudson, ]. This contrasts with the certainty we may have about the dates of the XII Dynasty.
Archives Hyksos, Hittite and Hurrian Conquests In the mids a literate people with a Semitic language moved through Canaan, took control of some cities there, and then conquered northern Egypt.
It is not known who they were, except that the Egyptians called them Hyksos hyk khwshtwhich identifies them only as foreigners. Like the Kassites, the Hyksos had horses, and they had lightweight chariots. They introduced Egyptians to the wheel and to new weapons of war.
They introduced the Egyptians to new musical instruments, new techniques in making bronze and potterynew animals, new kinds of crops, and new gods. Meanwhile, by the yearan illiterate, warlike, Hyksos hittites people called Hittites had migrated on foot southward into Asia Minor, where they overran and conquered tribal, bronze-age farming communities.
And like Sargon and others they saw their victories as willed by their gods and as proof of the righteousness of their conquests. Like others, the Hittites made deities of their dead kings, but they saw their living kings as human and expected them to obey their laws.
Their neighbors considered them sexually lax. But the Hittites were less brutal than some: From those they overran the Hittites learned how to make bronze. And sometime after the coming of the Kassites to Mesopotamia, the Hittites acquired horses and chariots.
With horses and light chariots, the well trained, highly disciplined Hittites launched a new conquest of neighboring peoples in Asia Minor. A horse pulling a man on a lightweight chariot was faster than a horse carrying a man on its back, and the Hittites were able to move rapidly, sometimes under the cover of darkness, and spring surprise assaults upon their adversaries.
The Hittite king, Mursilis I, forced a loose federation of city-states into the first Hittite empire. A Hittite army crossed the Taurus Mountains into Mesopotamia, and, inthey sacked Babylon, ending the dynasty that had been created there by Hammurabi.
But Babylon was too distant for the Hittites to rule — miles from their capital at Hattusas — and the Hittites withdrew from Babylon.
The Hittites remained the leading power north of Egypt untilwhen the Hittite king, Mursilis, was assassinated by his brother-in-law. More palace intrigues and murderous struggles for power followed among Hittite princes, priests, nobles, regents and ambitious widows.
It was to be a recurring development elsewhere in the world, and for the Hittites it brought what it would often bring to others: The Hurrians settled down, gradually adopted civilized ways and became dominant in such cities as Mari, on the upper Euphrates, and Nuzi, which became a thriving commercial center.
Then came another wave of Kassites, who occupied Babylon and briefly overran other parts of Mesopotamia. Kassite warriors settled down, adopted Mesopotamian culture and made themselves warrior-aristocrats.
A few of them became rulers of great estates from which they dominated surrounding territory. The Egyptians believed they were on a holy crusade and that they were protected by their gods.
Egypt gained wealth from booty, but it failed to push the Hurrians out of Syria. It was now the Hurrians who weakened themselves with internal conflict, and the Hittites — who had regained their strength — warred with the Hurrians and further weakened them, and this helped Assyrians in northeastern Mesopotamia free themselves from Hurrian domination.
Having experienced oppression under the Hurrians, the Assyrians were motivated to build a great military machine, led by their horse-breeding and landed nobility. The Assyrian king, Ashur the Great who ruled from tomarried his daughter to a Babylonian, and he invaded Babylon after Kassite nobles there murdered his grandchild.
During the mids, the pharaoh Amenhotep IV also known as Akhenaton, or Akhenaten tried to force his subjects to worship the god Aton, whom he believed was the god of the universe. Egypt, meanwhile, had withdrawn from Syria and Canaan. Then he clashed with the Hittites over control of Syria.
The Hittites gave Ramses a Hittite bride, and Ramses returned to Egypt, where he portrayed his exploits in Syria as a great victory — for he was supposed to be divine and incapable of failure.
To celebrate his victory and create symbols of his glory, Ramses ordered the creation of great buildings and monuments across Egypt.
More Invasions While the Egyptians had been reestablishing their empire, tribal peoples from Central Asia had been moving westward with their herds, running from droughts. They pushed on other tribal peoples, and around BCE these tribal peoples pushed into Asia Minor.
Around this time, the Hittites suffered from a plague that greatly reduced their population and made them vulnerable to attack. The Hittite capital, Hattusas, was overrun and was burned to the ground, and the Hittite empire collapsed.When the Hittite hieroglyphics have been read and Mesopotamia thoroughly explored, light may be thrown on the relations of the Mitannians, the Hittites, the Hyksos, and the Kassites between B.C.
and B.C. It is evident that a fascinating volume of ancient history has yet to be written. Start studying Hittites, Hyksos, Kush. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools.
The Hittites occupied the ancient region of Anatolia (also known as Asia Minor, modern-day Turkey) prior to BCE, developed a culture apparently. Rise of the Hittites Local warfare in Anatolia during 19th century BCE left most of its towns in ashes and made than vulnerable by the Hittites.
Strengths: incredibly powerful when united behind a strong king, introduced iron into warfare and agriculture. Start studying history: Chapter 1.
Egypt, Hyksos, Hittites.
Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. The New Kingdom is known with an intimacy that is missing from much of the rest of Egyptian history.
The fact that we have the mummies of most of the kings is extraordinary enough. adjacent to the old Hyksos capital of Avaris. The question of the site of Pi-Ramesse, and its fate, is discussed with the XXI Dynasty, The Hittites [Penguin.